Microbial Fuel Cell

Microbial fuel cells are a new technology that can treat the effluent thus making the water suitable for reuse in industries. MFCs reduce the need for exerting external energy required for wastewater treatment and the technology is sustainable. MFCs contain bacteria under anaerobic conditions at the anode that can utilize the organics in the wastewater and transferring electrons to the anode which are captured as current.

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Capacitive deionization

Reverse-osmosis is one of the highest power consuming systems that increases the overall cost of the CETP. Its energy consuming as it requires mechanical pumping of the water and has high maintenance due to periodic replacement of the membranes. Capacitive desalination has been increasingly explored in recent years as an alternative to reverse osmosis. Capacitive desalination involves application of low voltage between the two electrodes resulting in electrophoretic separation of ions from the water.